4 Types of Parenting Styles in Psychology And Their Impact on Child Development

Parenting styles are a topic of much debate in psychology. There are many different types of parenting styles, each with its own set of benefits and drawbacks. Parenting styles are determined by the parent’s background, personality, and the child’s individual needs.

There are four major types of parenting styles: authoritative, permissive, neglectful, and authoritarian. Each type has different effects on child development both positive and negative.

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However, it is important to note that parenting styles are not static; they can change over time as a result of changes in the child or parents. Accordingly, it is important for parents to periodically assess their own style and adjust it as needed in order to best support their child’s development.

This article will explore the 4 different parenting styles and their impact on child development. This is part of our new parent advice thread.

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  4. The 5 Love Languages of Children

Authoritative parenting

What is authoritative parenting? Authoritative parenting emphasizes obedience, structure, and discipline. Parents set clear rules, and expectations and enforce them consistently. Authoritative parents believe that children should be taught how to behave well. This type of parenting style is believed to lead to children who are confident, able to regulate their emotions, and have strong self-esteem. 

5 benefits of authoritative parenting

Authoritative parenting is a style of parenting that emphasizes decision-making by the parent with the child’s best interests in mind. The following are 5 benefits of authoritative parenting:

  1. It helps children develop self-esteem.
  2. It teaches children how to make responsible decisions.
  3. It promotes discipline and problem-solving skills.
  4. It encourages communication and cooperation between parents and children.
  5. It reduces conflict and strengthens relationships between parents and children.

Children raised with an authoritative parent are more likely to become leaders in their spaces.

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The drawbacks of authoritative parenting

The benefits of authoritative parenting are well-documented, but there are also drawbacks to this style of parenting.

When parents delegate authority to their children, they may be inadvertently setting themselves up for disappointment and conflict. Far from being unrestricted rule-breakers, children who receive authoritative parenting are more likely to comply with rules that are clear, consistent, and reasonable.

However, there are a number of drawbacks to this type of parenting.

  1. Authoritative parenting can be stifling; children who feel they cannot express themselves or push boundaries may become inhibited in their growth and development.
  2. Restricting Freedom: One drawback of authoritative parenting is that it can restrict a child’s freedom and stunt their independence.
  3. Over-Protective: Another drawback is that authoritative parents can be overprotective, which can stifle a child’s development.
  4. Inflexible: Authoritative parents can also be inflexible, which can lead to conflict with children.
  5. Lack of Empathy: A final drawback is that authoritative parents can lack empathy, which can result in poor communication with their children.

Conclusion: While the drawbacks of authoritative parenting are real, the benefits still outweigh them.

How to be an authoritative parent

  1. Establish rules and limits: set clear expectations for your child.
  2. Be consistent: enforce rules consistently, even when you are tired.
  3. Respond to bad behavior calmly and firmly: stay in control, even when your child is trying to provoke you.
  4. Praise your child’s good behavior: reward your child for following the rules.
  5. Avoid power struggles: pick your battles and be willing to compromise.
  6. Be a role model: Children learn by watching their parents.

The Impact on Child Development:

a) Positive Outcomes:

  • Well-adjusted Children
  • Higher Levels of Motivation and Self-Esteem
  • Better Social Skills
  • Increased Academic Achievement

b). Negative Outcomes:

  • If done wrong it can lead to (anxiety, depression, lower self-esteem, etc.)

Permissive parenting

What is Permissive parenting:  Permissive parenting is a style of child-rearing where parents make few demands on their children and allow them to largely regulate their own behavior. It’s based on the belief that all children deserve a certain amount of independence. A permissive parent will say they are “letting their children be kids”.

Characteristics of a permissive parent

Although there is no single parenting style that is right for every child, there are some general characteristics of a permissive parent.

  1. Permissive parents are often tolerant and accepting of their children’s behaviors and preferences. This gives children the freedom to explore their own interests and be themselves.
  2. This type of parenting allows for more independent behavior and allows for children to make mistakes without feeling punished.

Although this style can be fun for kids, it may not be optimal for all children. For some, a more strict parenting style may provide better discipline and help them develop independence skills.

Advantages of permissive parenting

  1. Allows children to learn from their own mistakes.
  2. Encourages independence and self-reliance.
  3. Teaches children to resolve conflicts peacefully.
  4. Promotes creativity and self-expression.

Disadvantages of permissive parenting

  1. Behavior Problems: Permissive parenting can lead to behavioral problems such as aggression, disobedience, and stealing.
  2. May lack discipline and direction in the child’s life. This may lead to children becoming spoiled and unruly.
  3. Lack of Boundaries: Children who have raised in a permissive home lack clear boundaries and may have difficulty setting limits for themselves as adults.
  4. Poor Coping Skills: Children who are not given guidance and structure may not learn how to cope with stress and frustration effectively.
  5. Mental Health Issues: Studies have shown that children who are raised in a permissive home are more likely to suffer from mental health issues such as anxiety and depression.
  6. Limited Social Skills: Children who do not have to compete

Neglectful Parenting

Neglectful parenting is a form of child neglect in which parents fail to provide their children with the basic necessary care, supervision, and support that they need. 

This type of neglect can occur when parents are too busy or too preoccupied with their own lives to take the time to properly care for their children. Neglectful parenting can have serious consequences for a child’s development, including emotional problems, behavioral issues, and even physical health problems. If you are concerned that your child is being neglected by you or your partner, it is important to get help.

The Four Signs of neglectful parenting

Parenting can be a lot of work. It takes time, effort, and patience to provide the proper care and guidance for your children. However, sometimes things can go wrong. If you notice any of the following signs of neglectful parenting, it might be time to talk to someone.

  1. Your child is not getting enough love and attention from you.
  2. You feel like you are constantly battling with your child or they are always resisting your authority.
  3. Children are unruly and acting out socially or academically
  4. Children are not getting enough exercise or nutrients.

A neglectful parenting style can have a negative impact on a child’s development and wellbeing. Not only do they suffer from the lack of attention and love they need, but they also tend to develop behavioral problems as they try to cope with the stress of their home life. In extreme cases, neglectful parents can even cause their children to destructive behaviors.

Authoritarian Parenting

The authoritarian parenting style is characterized by a high level of control and domination over the child. The parent insists on their own way of doing things, often rejecting any suggestions from the child. This type of parenting can lead to feelings of insecurity and dependence in the child, which can have long-term negative effects on their development.

4 Benefits of authoritarian parenting

  1. Children who are raised under an authoritarian parenting style are more likely to excel in school
  2. Authoritarian parenting can help children develop a sense of discipline
  3. Authoritarian parenting can help children learn to follow rules and regulations
  4. Authoritarian parenting can help children develop a strong work ethic

Final thoughts

In conclusion, there are four different types of parenting styles: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved. Each style has its own benefits and drawbacks, and the best style for a particular family depends on the parents’ goals and the children’s personalities. Parents should try different styles to see what works best for their family, and they should be open to changing their parenting style if it is not working.

Author’s Note:

As a parent myself, I know how overwhelming it can be trying to figure out what to do and where to start when it comes to caring for a new baby. With so much information available on the internet, it can be easy to feel overwhelmed and frustrated. But keep calm, you got this.

Good luck in your parenting journey. God bless you

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By Honey Let's Talk

I'm a certified relationship expert, professional counselor, and pastor. I've been helping people with their relationships for over 6 years. I'm passionate about helping people find and maintain healthy relationships.